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Tachikawa Ki-9 Trainer
5 decal variants for Japan, China, Nanking, Thailand, Manshu
Designed for use as a primary or intermediate trainer the Ki-9 appeared in late 1934. The first of three prototypes was flown on 7 January 1935, powered by a 261kW Hitachi Ha-13a radial. Production deliveries began in 1935. Designated the Army Type 95-1 Trainer Model A and later given the Allied codename Spruce the Tachikawa had complex split-axle landing gear with fairings over the top of the wheels. In 1939 this was modified and simplified, the fuselage slightly shortened and all-up weight reduced. The resulting Army Type 95-1 Model B or Ki-9 Kai had improved manoeuvrability and flight characteristics. Both versions were used widely for blind-flying training with a folding hood over the rear cockpit, and at least one was modified with a glazed canopy over the rear cockpit for use as a staff officer transport.